Audio Visual Sources


Although the examples on this page differ at times, there is a method to the madness. When you cite audio visual materials, you start by indicating the role of the creators (producer, writer, etc.). Then you give the date and title. After the title, you indicate in square brackets the type of source you’re dealing with (e.g., DVD, Audio Podcast, etc.). Lastly, you add the publishing information (a location and production company, or a URL).


For some reason, APA style has a different format for motion pictures and other videos.

Motion Picture

Here’s the basic format for citing a film:

Producer, A. A. (Producer), & Director, B. B. (Director). (Year). Video title [Motion Picture]. Country of Origin: Studio.

And here’s an example:

Benedict, E. (Producer), & Scramble, T. (Director). (1962). Breakfast epiphany [Motion Picture]. England: Singular Productions.

Other Videos

For other videos you can substitute DVD or Video File for Motion Picture, and add the relevant location. That can be a country and studio (as above) or a URL (as below):

Producer, A. A. (Producer), & Director, B. B. (Director). (Year). Video title [DVD or Video file]. Retrieved from URL

Here are some examples:

Lithuanian Lithium Association (Producer). (2015). Unboxing the latest antidepressants from Senegal [Video file]. Retrieved from

Styledog. (2011, December 5). How to cite videos in APA [Video file]. Retrieved from

In the second example, the creator’s name is a pseudonym. If you know the person’s real name, cite as follows:

Manning, C. [Styledog].


When you cite a podcast, you can add as many roles as you feel is important:

Jones, A. (Producer), Jones, B. (Speaker), & Jones, C. (Writer). (2017, August 2). Planet sunny [Audio Podcast]. Retrieved from

Notice that for the URL you can just provide the home page.

If you want to include the title of the specific episode, you can do so:

Radcliffe, N. (Creator). (2015, September 15). The one that got away. On Lab Rats Radio [Audio Podcast]. Retrieved from

If you’ve watched the video version of a podcast, write [Video podcast] rather than [Audio podcast].

Television Series

Here’s an example of how to cite an entire TV series:

Willburg, C. (Executive producer), & Flincher, D. (Director). (2017). Thirteen unlucky teens [Television series]. Pretoria: South Africa: Rooibos TV.

And here’s an example of a specific episode:

Ornery, F. (Writer), & Flincher, D. (Director). (2017, May 5). Matilda’s Cat [Television series episode]. In C. Willburg (Executive producer), Thirteen unlucky teens [Television series]. Pretoria: South Africa: Rooibos TV.

Music Recording

You can cite an entire record:

Brundage, K. (2015). Waking up beside you [CD]. Cincinnati, OH: Bottled Angst Records.

You can also cite a specific song:

Brundage, K. (2015). What’s that tattoo? On Waking up beside you [CD]. Cincinnati, OH: Bottled Angst Records.


There are plenty of other types of audio visual sources. To give just one example, here’s how you might cite a photo:

Clefbom, C. (Photographer). (2015, May 7). Apple tree in the backyard [Photograph]. Munich, Germany: Clefbom Museum.

Alternatively, if you found the photo online, you would provide a link (Retrieved from URL).

So try to be flexible and use brackets and parentheses to describe the contributors and the types of sources.


As mentioned, the examples on this page are not meant to be dogmatic. There is some flexibility as to how much you cite and how you describe the roles of contributors, the type of source, or the publication information. It’s best, then, to look for common patterns and understand the basic parts of each entry.

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