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This page will teach you how to cite longer works such as books and reference works, as well as the chapters or entries in them.


Basic Format

Here’s the default format for citing a book:

Author, A. A. (year of publication). Title (translator or editor). Publisher. DOI or URL

And here’s what that might look like in practice:

Youngblood, A. (1999). Addicted to Facebook and fake news: Studies in gerontology (F. Finch, Ed.). We The North Press.

Whitman, W. (2016). An introduction to urinal etiquette. Pissoir Digital.

You can vary the format by replacing the author with an editor or a group. Leave out the DOI or URL if the book doesn’t have one:

Putin, V. (Ed.) (2017). The fate of the pierogi in Russian controlled Ukraine. Black Sea Press.

Now that you know the general format, check out the variations below for other examples.


You only need to indicate that your source is an audio book if that version is different in some way from the regular text (e.g., it is abridged):

Carbuncle, R. D. (2015). How to fake a fake smile (H. Glow, Narr.) [Audiobook]. Colgate Audio.


Here’s how to cite an electronic book that lacks a DOI:

Nibali, B. (2002). A brief history of the little black dress.

Multi-volume Work with Multiple Editors

The following entry includes two editors, an edition, and a specific volume:

Sharp, B., & Klunk, H. (Eds.). (2009). Famous Freudian slips: The complete anals (2nd ed., Vol. 3). Parapraxis Press.

Edition with Author and Editor

Templeton, R. (2009). The destructive work habits of slobs (T. V. Time, Ed.; 2nd ed.). Billabong University Press.

Republished Work

Idler, A., Freude, S., & Dung, C. (1999). Hope I don’t fall in love with you: Problems with patient-therapist transference (B. Stricter, Ed. & Trans.). Golden Gate Press. (Original work published 1928)

Providing the original date of publication is also important for editions of classic works of literature (e.g., Plato, Shakespeare, etc.).

Translated Book

Grettirsdottir, L. (2002). A brief introduction to Icelandic humour (T. Smith, Trans.). Oxbridge University Press.

If the title is in a foreign language, you can add an English translation in square brackets behind it.

Chapters and Entries

Basic Format

Here is the basic format for citing a specific section of a book:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year of publication). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor, & B. Editor (Eds.), Book Title (pp. xx-xx). Publisher. DOI or URL

And this is what that looks like in practice:

Prune, B., & Bucket, C. J. (2017). Are splash parks a waste of water? In N. Green, & B. B. Gun (Eds.), Climate change and urban planning (pp. 14-19). Solar Press.

Now that you know the basic format, let’s look at a few sample variations.

Book Chapter, Reprinted from a Journal Article

Cork, V. (2005). The pedagogy of surprise. In B. P. MacDonald, & E. Sorenson (Eds.), Teaching with Emotion (pp. 89-102). Big Hat Press. (Reprinted from “The pedagogy of surprise,” 2001, Journal of Sentimentality, 4[3], 66-81,

Note that here the issue number of the article is placed in square brackets rather than parentheses.

Online Reference Work

Online works will typically lack page numbers:

Norton, F. (2010). Trauma. In H. Ypnosis (Ed.), The Gobsmack Encyclopedia of Psychology.

Other information that may be missing includes the author, editor, and date:

Adhocracy. (n.d.). In Dictionary of economic jargon. Retrieved January 11, 2019, from

When the entry lacks a date, you can provide a retrieval date instead.

For more information about citing books and sections of books, please see pp. 321-29 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.).