Social Media and Websites

Social Media

The basic format for citing social media is as follows:

Author, A. A. (Year, Month and day). Title [Description of audiovisuals]. Site name. URL

Note that the title is typically the wording of the social media post (up to 20 words). If the post does not include any audiovisuals or links, just leave out the description in square brackets.


When citing a tweet, be sure to add [Tweet] after the title and description:

Grump, D. [@BGrumpy99]. (2019, December 24]. Will probably be disappointed with my Christmas presents (again). 🙁 #ChristmasSucks [Image attached] [Tweet]. Twitter.

You can omit the description of audiovisuals in square brackets, or else provide a different wording (e.g., Link attached).

You can also cite a Twitter profile. In this case, provide a retrieval date, since the content may change:

Grump, D. [@BGrumpy99]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved January 22, 2020, from

You may replace “Tweets” with other parts of the Twitter profile (e.g., lists, moments, topics).

Post on Facebook, Tumblr, etc.

Here’s an example of a Facebook post:

Sophie and Sebastian. (2019, September 14). Excited to share another fun children’s story [Image and link attached] [Status update]. Facebook.

You can tailor this for other social media posts. Change the descriptions in brackets to suit your needs. For example, for Instagram you would might write [Photographs] instead of [Status update].

To cite a Facebook page, make sure you indicate the specific page title (home, photos, etc.):

Russia Hoax Conspiracy Society. (n.d.). Photos [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved August 2, 2018, from

You’ll note that this reference has a lot in common with the Twitter profile citation above.


Try to retain emojis if possible. If you are unable to create the same emoji, you can describe it in square brackets:


[grinning face]

For a list of emojis, see the Unicode website.

Forum Post

Cassidy, B. (2017, December 5). So I am writing a paper on the psychology of train robbers and I wonder if any of you could [Online forum post]. Reddit.

Notice that even though the post keeps going, we’ve cut it off after 20 words.


Let’s start with the basic format:

Author, A. A. (Year, Month and day). Title. Site. URL

Here is an example of a webpage:

Bauer, A. (2017, August 21). My view of the eclipse. Andy’s Science Blog.

If you’re interacting with multiple pages from the same website, you’ll have to cite each one separately.

If you want to cite an entire website, don’t do so in the reference list. Just mention the website in your text and provide the URL in parentheses.

If the author and the site title are the same, omit the latter. If the page is likely to change over time, provide a retrieval date:

Geese Unlimited. (n.d.). Why ducks are overrated (the latest stats). Retrieved October 22, 2020, from https:/www/

For more information, please consult pp. 348-52 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.).