On this page we review the rules for citing articles found in periodicals (academic journals). These guidelines follow the Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.). The examples provided illustrate the rules for both footnotes and final citations (in your bibliography).
Here’s the basic format for citing a scholarly article in your bibliography:
When you cite the same source in a footnote, it will look a little different:
1. Bill Lastman, “The Rhetoric of Municipal Council Meetings,” Journal of Civic Oratory 55, no. 3 (May 2017): 7.
In this case the name is not inverted, a specific page reference is provided, and some periods are replaced by commas.
Here are some further details to observe:
- Important words in titles are capitalized (headline style)
- Titles and subtitles are separated with a colon
- If the periodical lacks volume numbers, simply place the issue number after the periodical title, separated by a comma (e.g., Journal of Craniology, no. 4)
- Periodical titles are not usually abbreviated, unless the periodical is known primarily by its abbreviation (e.g., PMLA) or a publisher prefers shortened titles.
- The definite article (The) can usually be omitted from periodical titles, unless the publication is not in English (e.g., Das Argument)
- While you only have to provide the year of publication, you may add the month, exact day, or season (more examples below)
If you accessed the article online, you can provide some extra information. Where possible, add a DOI number or URL:
1. Mia Opie, “How Turning a Blind Eye Can Make You a Better Listener,” Blind Optometrist 3, no. 1 (Summer 2016): 24-47, https://doi.org/10.4321/bli.23nk34.
2. Bernard Flunk, “Flight on the Dromedary: Zenobia and the Siege of Palmyra,” Ancient Near Eastern Studies 32, no. 1 (September 2007): 66-121, https://www.journalpod.org/stable/571039.
Opie, Mia. “How Turning a Blind Eye Can Make You a Better Listener.” Blind Optometrist 3, no. 1 (Summer 2016): 24-47. https://doi.org/10.4321/bli.23nk34.
Flunk, Bernard. “Flight on the Dromedary: Zenobia and the Siege of Palmyra.” Ancient Near Eastern Studies 32, no. 1 (September 2007): 66-121. https://www.journalpod.org/stable/571039.
If there is no DOI, and the URL may not work for most readers, you may instead provide the title of the database through which you accessed the source:
1. Nick Bunting, “The History of Christmas Tree Ornaments in Select Pockets of Eastern Michigan,” Adventus 209, no. 3 (January 2001): 1-16, JSTOR.
Bunting, Nick. “The History of Christmas Tree Ornaments in Select Pockets of Eastern Michigan.” Adventus 209, no. 3 (January 2001): 1-16. JSTOR.
To check if a URL works for the average reader, log out of your library database and try use the link. If the URL directs you to at least a citation or preview of the text (even if not full access), you can use it. In other words, in most cases you do not have to substitute the database title.
If an article has not been published yet (but you somehow have access to it), you can cite is as follows:
1. Rosemary Menhir, “Was Stonehenge an Alien Landing Strip?” Studies in Anachronism 12 (forthcoming).
Menhir, Rosemary. “Was Stonehenge an Alien Landing Strip?” Studies in Anachronism 12 (forthcoming).
If the article is to be published electronically, and you have early access, provide the date that accompanies this version:
1. Elmira Starch, “The Pudding is in the Proof: The Challenges of Preserving Culinary Legal Evidence,” Lawyer’s Digest 47, no. 1, published ahead of print, June 5, 2017, https://doi.org/10.4545/577743.
Starch, Elmira. “The Pudding is in the Proof: The Challenges of Preserving Culinary Legal Evidence.” Lawyer’s Digest 47, no. 1. Published ahead of print, June 5, 2017. https://doi.org/10.4545/577743.
If in the meantime the official publication comes out, cite that instead.
No Continuous Pagination
Some online periodicals don’t have continuous pagination. Each article is numbered starting with page 1. In such cases, a unique ID might be provided that can replace the page range:
1. Benjamin Falsetto, “The Eunuch’s Guide to the Orchestra,” Philsharmonica 3, no. 2 (July 2016): agjf8e88m, https://doi.org/10.1515/1633939vv4.
Falsetto, Benjamin. “The Eunuch’s Guide to the Orchestra.” Philsharmonica 3, no. 2 (July 2016): agjf8e88m, https://doi.org/10.1515/1633939vv4.
The Chicago Manual of Style does not require an access date for citations of electronic sources. However, if you are asked to provide one, you can insert it before the URL:
1. Johannes Naaktgeboren, “The Dutch Connection to the Paradise Papers,” Studies in Tax Evasion 45, no. 2 (December 2017): 59-72, accessed December 19, 2017, https://doi.org/10.9843/150948902.
Naaktgeboren, Johannes. “The Dutch Connection to the Paradise Papers.” Studies in Tax Evasion 45, no. 2 (December 2017): 59-72. Accessed December 19, 2017. https://doi.org/10.9843/150948902.
Sometimes you may come across an entire periodical issue dedicated to a single theme or topic. Here’s how you can cite both an individual article and the entire issue:
1. Jean Lacroix, “Some Unusual North Sea Catches,” in “The Elusive Red Herring,” ed. Fred Shipley and Bob Seaworth, special issue, Journal of Fisheries and Oceans 42, no. 3 (Summer 2015): 15.
Lacroix, Jean. “Some Unusual North Sea Catches.” In “The Elusive Red Herring,” edited by Fred Shipley and Bob Seaworth. Special issue, Journal of Fisheries and Oceans 42, no. 3 (Summer 2015): 1-29.
Shipley, Fred, and Bob Seaworth, eds. “The Elusive Red Herring.” Special issue, Journal of Fisheries and Oceans 42, no. 3 (Summer 2015).
As usual, you can add a URL or DOI for electronic sources (see above).
When you cite an article published in a magazine, there are a few differences to note. Most importantly, the date of publication is not placed in parentheses:
1. William Gray, “More Drivers are Changing Their Gender to Save on Insurance Costs,” Underwriter, October 15, 2018, 23.
Gray, William. “More Drivers are Changing Their Gender to Save on Insurance Costs.” Underwriter, October 15, 2018.
Any articles (a, the) that precede magazine titles are omitted. Similarly, in a bibliographic entry the page range can be left out.
When citing a review, include the author of the review, provide the title of both the review (if there is one) and the work under review, and indicate where the review can be found:
1. Julia Hoeness, “The Texture of Masculine Language,” review of Masculinity and the Language of Nonrepresentability, by Bradley Klothes, Studies in Masculine Failings 4, no. 2 (May 2008): 5.
Hoeness, Julia. “The Texture of Masculine Language.” Review of Masculinity and the Language of Nonrepresentability, by Bradley Klothes. Studies in Masculine Failings 4, no. 2 (May 2008): 5-7.
Besides the author, you can also list other contributors. For example, for a review of a performance you might cite specific performers as well as the location (e.g., written by Jane Air, performed by Emma Rock, Old Chatterbox Theatre). Such information can be placed right after the title of the work reviewed.
In some cases you may want to cite just the abstract:
1. Erroneous Mertpickle, “Oecolampadius on Just War Theory,” abstract, Belligerent Quarterly 288, no. 4 (June 2015): 145, https://doi.org/10.9889/1305701.
Mertpickle, Erroneous. “Oecolampadius on Just War Theory.” Abstract. Belligerent Quarterly 288, no. 4 (June 2015): 145-54. https://doi.org/10.9889/1305701.
For more information about citing periodicals, see especially pages 828-37 of The Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.).