The last part of a citation is the publication information. What information you provide depends on the type of source and what’s available. Here we review the most common options.
For journal articles, provide the periodical title, the volume, the issue number (if available), and the page range:
Kappa, A. B., Middlington, E. & Mooney, P. R. (2016). The non-uniformity of heterogeneous co-ed frat houses. Social Architectonics, 12(4), 99-108.
If the issues in a volume have continuous pagination (i.e., they don’t start with page 1, but continue counting from the previous issue), then don’t include the issue number.
For books and reports, provide the city of publication, followed by the state (if in the US) or country. Then add a colon and the publisher:
Youngblood, A. (1999). Addicted to Facebook and fake news: Studies in gerontology. Toronto, Canada: We The North Press.
Here are a few additional rules to observe:
- For the right abbreviation of a US state, consult this list.
- If the publisher’s name includes the name of a university and a state or province (e.g., State University of New York Press), you don’t need to also include this information when listing the location.
- You can shorten the publisher’s name by deleting words such as Publishers, Ltd, and Inc. You should, however, retain Books and Press.
- If the author and the publisher are the same, write Author for the publisher’s name.
For online sources, it’s customary to add a link that allows the reader to retrieve the source.
The default link is a DOI, or Digital Object Identifier:
Rush, N. M., Quick, C. F., & Scamper, A. (2016). The handwriting of psychology students analyzed through the notation of the ampersand in final exams. The Psychic Calligraphist, 22(1), 1-18, https://doi.org/10.1241/1487.983cbb
Please see our page on DOIs for a more detailed explanation of how to cite a DOI correctly.
If no DOI is available, you can provide a URL. Introduce it with the phrase “Retrieved from”:
Carbuncle, R. D. (2015). How to fake a fake smile [Glow Worm Reader version]. Retrieved from https://www.colgatepubs.com/html.fake/url
Before you hand in your essay, double check that any hyperlinks still work.
For more information about citing publication information, please read pp. 186-92 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.).