The Parts of an Entry


The final bibliography in an APA paper is called a reference list. The reference list includes only those sources that have been cited in the text and that support the argument. Background studies and works of general interest are not included.

In addition, sources cited in the reference list should be recoverable. The reader should be able to locate and access them. For that reason, personal documents (e.g., emails, letters) that are not publicly accessible should be cited only in the body of your essay, and not in the reference list.

Component Parts

Every entry in the reference list has four parts:

Author | Year of Publication | Title | Publishing Info

To learn more about each part of an entry (as well as how to format the entire reference list), please consult the following pages:

Authors and Editors

Publication Date


Publication Information

Digital Object Identifiers