Formatting the Bibliography

Introduction

Many academic works conclude with a detailed bibliography. Here’s how to format the page and alphabetize your entries, using the guidelines provided in the Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.).

Basic Layout

Always start your bibliography on a separate page. It may be helpful to insert a page break in your document.

Next, write “Bibliography” at the top and centre this heading. Leave two line breaks before starting your first entry (left aligned):

Here are a few more things to note:

  • Apply hanging indentation to your entries.
  • Include your regular header (page number)
  • Single space your entries, but leave an extra space in between them.
  • Use the same font you have used throughout the essay

Note that like most instructors we follow the line spacing rules found in Kate L. Turabian’s A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. By contrast, the Chicago Manual of Style (sections 2.8 and 2.24) does allow for double spacing.

Rules for Alphabetizing

All the entries in your bibliography should be sorted alphabetically. A good way to get started is to use Microsoft Word’s sort feature. However, you may still have to do some tweaking to get things perfect.

The Chicago Manual of Style prefers a letter by letter approach to alphabetizing. All that means is that when you’re comparing entries you ignore the breaks between words. Here’s an example:

Coleslaw, Bob.

Cole, Ted.

The point of divergence occurs when the s in Coleslaw comes before the T in Ted.

Most often you can alphabetize by name, but sometimes you may have to compare another detail. As you do so, ignore articles (the, a, an) and skip abbreviations such as ed. or trans.

The 3-Em Dash

Traditionally, additional entries by the same author(s) have been indicated by three dashes followed by a period or comma (in the case of a follow-up abbreviation such as ed.):

Wattle, Jeremy. A History of the Rooster’s Crow. Vancouver: Cage Press, 2011.

—. “The Rooster Always Crows Thrice: Another Look at Peter’s Denial.” New Day Hermeneutics 2, no. 3 (2018): 1-15.

—, ed. The Ultimate Guide to Cock Fighting. Peterborough: Broadviewer Press, 2017.

The implication is that Jeremy Wattle is the author of all three texts. Note that for the sake of alphabetizing we have ignored abbreviations (ed.) as well as the articles in the titles (a, the).

The latest edition of the Chicago Manual of Style does not require the use of the 3-em dash. You should therefore check to see what your instructor prefers. If you’re not using the 3-em dash, simply write out the full name for each entry.

Multiple Authors

If you’re citing two sources that start with a common author, cite the single-author text before the multi-author text:

Paddington, Elmer. A Brief History of Corduroy Shorts. London: Tweed, 2004.

Paddington, Elmer, and Bryan Fawning. “Sartorial Bullying and the Status of Corduroy.” The Marxist Tailor 88, no. 1 (1993): 7-19.

When both works are multi-author texts (and start with the same author), alphabetize by the last names of the coauthors.

Stone, Brittany, and Lara Mason.

Stone, Brittany, and Ben Mortar.

If all authors are exactly identical, compare a subsequent detail such as a title.

More Information

For more information, see especially sections 14.65-14.71 of The Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.).

Parts of a Citation

Introduction

This page is not thrilling reading, and you should view it primarily as a reference guide. If you’re using the Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.), and you have a question about how to cite a particular part of a source (title, author, publisher, etc.), then consult the relevant section below.

Author

Inverting Names

In the final bibliography, the author’s name is inverted:

1. Bernard Standstone, Networking at Starbucks

Sandstone, Bernard. Networking at Starbucks

For multiple authors, invert only the first author’s name (and insert “and” before the last):

Homer, Donald, Guy Hicks, and Kim Stanley Philby.

Also, try list the authors in the order they appear on the title page (even though this isn’t the alphabetical order).

Et al.

For any work that has four or more authors (or editors), use the abbreviation et al. after the first name in your footnote

1. Bob Hermite et al., Growing Hasselberries

By contrast, in your bibliography et al. should be used only for works with more than ten authors. In such cases you can cite the first six or seven and then add the abbreviation.

When coauthors share the same last name (and may even be family), do still cite each name in full:

1. Jason Trilby and Emma Trilby…

Initials

If authors use only initials, don’t write out their full names:

E. B. White,
F. Scott Fitzgerald
P. G. Wodehouse

Pseudonyms

In some cases, you may want to indicate that the author’s name is a pseudonym:

1. Gadfly [pseud.], “Parliament Wrong To Raise Taxes.”

There are, however, plenty of famous authors who have used pseudonyms. Lewis Carroll, for example, was the pen name of Charles Lutwidge Dodgson. For such well known names you do not need to add pseud. or provide the author’s real name.

First names

Some authors are primarily known by their first names. In such cases you don’t have to invert the name in the bibliography:

Dante Alighieri.

Title

Basic Format

Titles of longer works (e.g., books) are italicized whereas shorter works (e.g., articles) are placed in italics:

Teutonic Nights: A Romance (novel)
“How to Turn a Sneeze into a Dab” (blog post)

Note also that the capitalization is headline-style, which means that important words are capitalized, but words like articles (a, the) and prepositions (in, over, etc.) are not. There are two exceptions, however. Do capitalize any word after a colon (at the start of a subtitle) and use sentence-style capitalization for foreign language titles (e.g., Tous les cornichons du monde).

Subtitles

Subtitles are usually introduced by a colon (even if there is no colon in the original). Make sure you capitalize the next word:

A Brewery on the Steppes: An Introduction to the Mongolian Craft Beer Industry

If the main title ends with a question mark (?) or exclamation mark (!), don’t add the colon. The exception is if the question mark of exclamation mark is in quotation marks (the third example):

Stone the Crows! The Popular Representation of Corvidae
Why Always Me? How To Get Children Stop Whining and Love Their Chores
“Haere Ra Dear House!”: New Zealand’s Leaky Home Crisis, 1994-2004

Note also how in the first example the Latin species name is in roman font (see below) and how in the last example the dates are separated by a comma.

If a title has two subtitles, place a semi-colon between them.

Quotations within Titles

If your title is in quotation marks, and it makes mention of another title, use single quotation marks within double quotation marks:

“‘At Small Parties There Isn’t Any Privacy’: How To Host Your Own Great Gatsby Themed Party”

Terms within Titles

When we draw attention to words or terms, we normally use italics:

I can never remember how to spell the words desert and dessert.

This rule also applies for titles. However, if the title itself is already in italics, use roman font for the specific words:

From Schmuck to Kibitzer: My Life as a Yiddish Literary Critic (book)

“Why the Word Stationary Continues to Move Me” (article)

By using roman font in the first example we can distinguish the emphasized words from the rest of the title.

Long Titles

If a title is very long (as is common with older works), you can shorten it by using spaced ellipses enclosed in square brackets:

A Brief Inquiry into the Differences Between the Sexes, Expatiating on the Myth of Tiresias, and Answering the Question whether Men or Women Receive More Enjoyment from [. . .].

You can place the ellipses either in the middle or at the end.

Translated Titles

If you provide a translation of a foreign language title, place it in square brackets:

Een korte geschiedenis van Middelburg [A Short History of Middelburg]

If you provide a translation and omit the original title, let the reader know the language of the source.

A Short History of Middelburg [Dutch]

Publication information

When it comes to citing books, it’s customary to provide the city of publication, the publisher, and the date of publication:

1. Egil Viking, The Oxbridge Guide to Pillaging Monasteries (Reykjavik: All Things Press, 2005).

Viking, Egil. The Oxbridge Guide to Pillaging Monasteries. Reykjavik: All Things Press, 2005.

Let’s review each of these elements in some more detail.

City

When you look at the copyright page of a book, it can be difficult to know which city to cite. In general, if the publisher has offices in multiple cities, cite just the first one given.

SOPORIFIC PRESS
Sleepy Hollow Road 9, Vancouver, Z8Z 9Z9, Canada
Rue de Sommeil 5, Paris, SD 300, France
Träumerei Building, Jena, 983 NDL, Germany

In addition, if the city of publication is obscure or easily confused, then you can add the state, province, or country name (usually abbreviated):

Puddletown, UK: Antediluvian Publications
Yeehaw Junction, FL: Seesaw Press
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press

Note, however, that if you cite Cambridge University Press, you don’t have to specify that Cambridge is in England. Similarly, if the state is clear from the publisher’s name (e.g., University of California Press), you don’t have to add an abbreviation after the city.

If you don’t know the place of publication, write n.p. or make an educated guess and add a question mark (e.g., Chicago?).

Finally, use English names for foreign cities (e.g., Brussels, not Bruxelles or Brussel), but leave publisher’s names untranslated.

Publisher

Abbreviations

For the publisher’s name, you can omit common abbreviations (e.g., Ltd., Inc., Co.):

Polyp, not Polyp Co.
Towns Brothers, not Towns Brothers Inc.
Myopic Press, not Myopic Press, Ltd.

For university presses you can abbreviate the word university (e.g., Weissnichtwo Univ. Press)

Ampersand

If the publisher’s name contains an and or &, you can you either form in your citations:

Proudfoot and Humble
Haddock & Codpiece
Takit and Leavitt.

Imprints

Often the copyright page will list multiple publishers. In such cases one parent company may be publishing under multiple names (called imprints). Usually it is sufficient to cite just the imprint.

For example, let’s say the title page and copyright page list both “Macmillan” (the parent company), and “Picador” (the imprint), in that case you would cite just Picador.

If you do want to spell out the relationship between the imprint and the parent company, you can do that:

On Point Press, an imprint of UBC Press

Books prior to 1900

For books published before 1900, you can omit the publisher’s name.

Date

For books you need provide only the year of publication. For other works (e.g., articles), you may also want to provide the exact date, month, or season.

Wright, Ian, and Lukas Obviüs, The Art of Mansplaining. Calgary: Red Neck Press, 2018. (book)

Saddleback, Robert. “Ponying Up: The Rising Costs of Miniature Horses.” Grand Spoons Tribune, August 5, 2017. (newspaper)

Often a copyright page will contain multiple dates. Try find the most recent date, but ignore any references to copyright renewal or to specific impressions.

If a source has gone through multiple editions, you will want to cite the latest one:

Blandish, Kate. Mortified or Petrified? The Psychology of Shame and Fear. 2nd ed. Edited by Jude Wooden. Athens: Lightning Press, 2008.

No Date

If a printed text lacks a date, use the abbreviation n.d. On the other hand, when a text has been accepted for publication but has not yet been published, you can write forthcoming in place of the date.

More Information

For more information about the parts of an entry discussed here, please see sections 14.72-14.84 (authors), 14.85-14.99 (titles), and 14.127-14.146 (publication information) of the Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.).

DOIs and URLs

Introduction

The Chicago Manuel of Style (17th ed.) suggests that citations of online sources should include either a hyperlink (a URL), an identifying series of numbers and letters (a DOI), or some other means that allows us to find the source on the web.

Order of Priority

Wondering what type of identifier is best for online sources? Here are your options, ranked from optimal to worst case scenario:

  1. A DOI (Digital Object Identifier). E.g., https://doi.org/10.1515/1938590.
  2. A permalink. This is a URL (Uniform Resource Locator) supplied on the web page as a link that remains stable over time. E.g., https://www.scientificcaucasian.org/june-2018/article-3/.
  3. A basic URL. E.g., https://natureofwriting.com.
  4. A Database title. Use only if the URL leads to a page that both requires login access and lacks inadequate bibliographical information.

Just go down the list and pick what’s available. As you do so, here are a few more things to keep in mind:

  • Try shorten very long URLs. Often you can navigate back a page or two and find a shorter form. This is especially the case if you’re doing research with Google and you find a quote from a book or article excerpt.
  • However, avoid abbreviated URLs that are meant just for social media sharing or for temporary usage. E.g., a “bit.ly” link.
  • If a link ends in a slash (/), you can leave it in.
  • Don’t forget to start DOIs and URLs with http:// (or https://).
  • For more information about DOIs, please see our detailed introduction, though do note that many of the specific rules apply to the APA style guide.

URL Line Breaks

If you’re printing out a text with URLs, you’ll want to break them up to avoid awkward gaps at the end of a line. You can split a URL in the following places:

  • After a colon or double slash (//)
  • Before a single slash (/), period, comma, hyphen (-), underline (_), question mark, number sign (#), percent symbol (%), or tilde (~).
  • Before or after an equals sign (=) or ampersand (&).

Only rarely should you break up a URL between syllables.

Here is an example:

www.customurns.com

/rustic-Augustan/830%34

Note that you don’t have to add a hyphen to indicate where you’ve added a line break.

Books

Introduction

On this page we review the rules for citing books. These guidelines follow the Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.). The examples provided illustrate the rules for both footnotes and final citations (in your bibliography).

The Basics

Here’s the basic format for citing books in your bibliography:

If the author’s name is unknown, just start with the title.

When you cite the same source in a footnote, it will look a little different:

1. Thomas Petty, Mary Jane: The Biography (Los Angeles: High Street Press, 2001), 62.

In this case the name is not inverted, a specific page reference is provided, and the punctuation is different.

For additional elements, please see the variants below.

Variants

Multiple Authors

When a book has multiple authors, list them in the same order as on the title page:

1. Ian Wright and Lukas Obviüs, The Art of Mansplaining (Calgary: Red Neck Press, 2018), 33.

Wright, Ian, and Lukas Obviüs, The Art of Mansplaining. Calgary: Red Neck Press, 2018.

For any work that has four or more authors (or editors), use the abbreviation et al. after the first name in your footnote (e.g., 1. Bob Hermite et al., Growing Hasselberries). By contrast, in your bibliography et al. should be used only for works with more than ten authors. In such cases you can cite the first six or seven and then add the abbreviation.

Editor, Translator, Compiler

If the book has an editor, translator, or compiler (instead of an author), cite it as follows:

1. Peter Sfumato, ed., The Art of Chiaroscuro (White Horse: Dark Matter Publishing, 2017), 155.

2. Larry Rataxes, trans. War with the Elephants: The Official Account (Brussels: Brunhoff Press, 1998), 44.

3. Mark Cassidy, comp., When the Job Market is a Dust Bowl: Convocation Speeches During the Great Depression (Denver: Make Work University Press, 2009), 5.

Sfumato, Peter, ed. The Art of Chiaroscuro. White Horse: Dark Matter Publishing, 2017.

Rataxes, Larry, trans. War with the Elephants: The Official Account. Brussels: Brunhoff Press, 1998.

Cassidy, Mark. When the Job Market is a Dust Bowl: Convocation Speeches During the Great Depression. Denver: Make Work University Press, 2009.

If there are multiple editors, translators, or compilers, use the abbreviations eds., comps., and trans., and cite the names as follows:

1. Fidelity Castro and Manual Mirabal, eds., Perfecting the Cuban Cigar (Havana: Cuban Classics, 2008), 99-101.

Castro, Fidelity, and Manual Mirabal, eds. Perfecting the Cuban Cigar. Havana: Cuban Classics, 2008.

Author and Editor, Translator, or Compiler

Here is how you might cite a book that has an author as well as one or more editors, translators, or compilers:

1. Eugenie Arachide, Social Darwinism and the Problem of the Peanut Butter Allergy, ed. Lorne Kraftwerk and Amelia Shock, trans. William Smooth (Toronto: Anaphylactic Press, 2010), 14.

2. Bart Simon, An American Tune: The Concert in Central Park, ed. Paul Earfull (New York: Bookends, 2013), 49-51.

Arachide, Eugenie. Social Darwinism and the Problem of the Peanut Butter Allergy. Edited by Lorne Kraftwerk and Amelia Shock. Translated by William Smooth. Toronto: Anaphylactic Press, 2010.

Simon, Bart. An American Tune: The Concert in Central Park. Edited by Paul Earfull. New York: Bookends UP, 2013.

Notes:

  • When an editor, translator, or compiler is listed after the title, the plural form of the abbreviation is trans., or comp.
  • If you’re listing multiple roles, retain the same order as on the original title page.
  • Try to simplify elaborate phrases such as “Translated and introduced by” or “Edited and annotated by” to shorter forms such as “Translated by” or Edited by”

Other Contributors

If a book contains another contribution that you find significant, you can mention it in your footnotes or bibliography. Here are just a couple of bibliographic examples. There are many more ways to describe the specific contribution:

Johnson, Bartholomew. Sky High: The Evolution of the Hook Shot. With a foreword by Stilt Chamberlain. Chicago: Jabbar Publications, 2017.

Wince, Irene. The Ethics of Animating Facial Expressions. In collaboration with Arnold Dimple. Buffalo: High Brow Press, 2015.

Note that ghost writers are usually introduced by a With (e.g., With Bob Johnson).

Chapter of a Book

If you want to highlight a specific chapter or section of someone’s book, you can do that! Do note that when you cite the page references in your footnotes, you have some choice: you can refer to a specific page, the chapter’s page range, or leave out the page range altogether:

1. Andrew Tipple, “Of Infidels and Zinfandels,” in The Sommelier’s Guide to Fighting Terrorism (Los Angeles: Portly Press, 2018), 13.

2. Fritz Wunderbar, “The First Word: Swear Word or Imperative?” chap. 2 in Essays on the Evolution of Language (Nottingham: Sherwood Publications, 2011).

Tipple, Andrew. “Of Infidels and Zinfandels.” In The Sommelier’s Guide to Fighting Terrorism, 1-18. Los Angeles: Portly Press, 2018.

Wunderbar, Fritz. “The First Word: Swear Word or Imperative?” Chap. 2 in Essays on the Evolution of Language. Nottingham: Sherwood Publications, 2011.

Notice that in the second example the specific chapter number is provided.

You can also arrange your bibliography entry slightly differently:

Wunderbar, Fritz. Essays on the Evolution of Language. Nottingham: Sherwood Publications, 2011. See esp. chap. 2, “The First Word: Swear Word or Imperative?”

Chapter in a Collection or Anthology

1. Antonia Narcisi, “Will Drones Replace Selfie Sticks?” in Selected TEDDY Talks: Inspirational Speeches from the 2016 Rome Conference, ed. Max Lubotsky and B. R. Mindful (Rome: Colossal Wait Publications, 2018), 88.

Narcisi, Antonia. “Will Drones Replace Selfie Sticks?” In Selected TEDDY Talks: Inspirational Speeches from the 2016 Rome Conference, edited by Max Lubotsky and B. R. Mindful, 72-99. Rome: Colossal Wait Publications, 2018.

Note the inclusion of the full page range (after the editors), as well as the fact that “edited” is not capitalized.

Introduction, Preface, Afterword

If you want to cite an author’s own introduction, preface, afterword, or similar section, you simply add the appropriate phrase:

1. Uluthando Jones, preface to A Zulu in Honolulu: A Memoir (San Francisco: Penguin Press, 2011), 3.

In such cases, the bibliographic entry can usually be simplified:

Jones, Uluthando. A Zulu in Honolulu: A Memoir. San Francisco: Penguin Press, 2011.

On the other hand, if the writer of the foreword (or similar section) differs from the author, you’ll need to provide more information:

1. John Hopper, afterword to Prison Break Dances, by Ed Bojangles, ed. Jane Worthy (San Antonio: Hobble Press, 2009), 8.

Hopper, John. Afterword to Prison Break Dances, by Ed Bojangles, 1-11. Edited by Jane Worthy. San Antonio: Hobble Press, 2009.

Multi-volume Work

If you wish to cite from a work with multiple volumes, here’s how you do that:

1. Hazel Tipsy, ed. Missionary Activities of the Guzzling Society for Inebriation, 5 vols. (Waterloo, ON: On Tap Press, 2016), 3:45-46.

Tipsy, Hazel, ed. Missionary Activities of the Guzzling Society for Inebriation. 5 vols. Waterloo, ON: On Tap Press, 2016.

As you can see, in the footnote we’ve cited a passage from volume 3.

If the volume has an author and an editor, add the number of volumes after the editor’s name (assuming the author is cited first). If the volumes are published over a number of years, provide the first and last year of publication (e.g., 2005-2011).

To cite a specific volume in a footnote, identify the volume number and add the title (if there is one):

1. Hazel Tipsy, ed. Missionary Activities of the Guzzling Society for Inebriation, vol. 4, The Craft Beer Revolution (Waterloo, ON: On Tap Press, 2016), 3:45-46.

You can also place the editor’s name after the title if that’s what you prefer.

Finally, when you cite an individual volume in your bibliography, you can order the information in a couple of ways:

Cash, Brooke, ed. The Complete Guide to the Spendthrift Life. Vol. 3, Games and Gambles, edited by Rich Filthy. Los Angeles: Opulence Publications, 1999-2004.

Filthy, Rich, ed. Games and Gambles. Vol. 3 of The Complete Guide to the Spendthrift Life, edited by Brooke Cash. Los Angeles: Opulence Publications, 1999-2004.

In these examples the individual volume has its own editor.

Reference Work

When you cite a reference work such as a dictionary or encyclopedia, you can either supply a page reference or use the abbreviation s.v (sub verbo; the plural is s.vv.), which is Latin for under the word. This refers to the term or phrase that has been defined or explained in your source:

1. Dictionary of Emoticons, ed. Asahi Nakamura, 2nd ed. (Boston: Character Publications, 2017),  s.v. “Lenny Face.”

Dictionary of Emoticons. Edited by Asahi Nakamura. 2nd ed. Boston: Character Publications, 2017.

For variations (authors, contributors, publication formats) follow the other examples found on this page.

In the case of online reference works, you will want to specify either a publication/revision date or an access date (when you last looked at the material). Conclude your citation with a URL:

1. Wikipedia, s.v. “Duels (uncivilized),” accessed June 15, 2018, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/duels-uncivilized.

Note also that titles of websites are not italicized.

Online Book

A number of options are available when citing an online book. These include citing the e-reader used, listing the file format (e.g., PDF), and providing a URL or DOI.

Here’s how you would list the device you used to access the text:

1. John Nelson, Limiting Screen Time (Perth: Fibre Optic Press, 2018), p. 23, Kindle.

Nelson, John. Limiting Screen Time. Perth: Fibre Optic Press, 2018. Kindle.

The same format applies for other e-readers (Kobo, NOOK, etc.).

Since many e-books don’t have stable page numbers, you may often be better off citing chapter or section numbers. In fact, if you’re not sure that the electronic page numbers correspond to actual page numbers in a print version, then avoid using them in your citations.

In rare cases you may want to replace the e-reader with the format of the book (e.g., PDF) along with the program used to read it (e.g., Adobe Acrobat Reader):

Evans, Reginald Theodore. The Uses of Earwax. Denver: Humdrum Press, 2011. Adobe Acrobat Reader PDF.

Another popular way to cite e-books is to provide a URL or DOI. This works especially well for electronic books accessed through academic library catalogues:

1. William Slabskate, The History of Connecticut Park Benches (New Haven: Foliage Press, 2001), chap. 2, https://doi.org/10.1454/aj987sd09g.

Slabskate, William. The History of Connecticut Park Benches. New Haven: Foliage Press, 2001. https://doi.org/10.1454/aj987sd09g.

If you don’t think your reader will be able to access the text by using your link, then instead provide the database title (e.g., JSTOR).

Bible

Quotations from the Bible are cited either in footnotes or in parentheses in the text. There’s no need to cite the Bible in your bibliography.

Traditionally, Bible books are abbreviated (except for short titles) and chapter and verse are separated by a colon:

Matt. 3:2

Mark 7:13

Alternatively, you can use shorter forms that are not followed by a period:

Mt 20:1

Mk 15:4

However, in the actual text of your essay you’ll usually want to spell out the full title:

Paul argues in 1 Corinthians 13 that charity is the greatest virtue.

Finally, at least for the first time you cite from the Bible you should indicate which version you have used:

2 Cor. 3:4 (New International Version)

If after that you wish to specify the version, you can use an abbreviation (e.g., NIV).

Dissertation

For dissertations, place the title between quotation marks and provide details on the type of thesis (master’s thesis, PhD dissertation, etc.) as well as the institution where it was written. You can end your entry with either a URL or with the database and identification number–both often followed by a page reference:

1. Erica Champagne, “When the Wedding Gets Called Off: Nontraditional Ways to Repurpose Bridesmaid Dresses” (PhD diss., University of Studupest, 2001), SpaceQuest (ABC 30910), 45-47.

Champagne, Erica. “When the Wedding Gets Called Off: Nontraditional Ways to Repurpose Bridesmaid Dresses.” PhD diss., University of Studupest, 2001. SpaceQuest (ABC 30910).

If you’ve consulted only the abstract, you can add the word abstract after the title:

1. Erica Champagne, “When the Wedding Gets Called Off: Nontraditional Ways to Repurpose Bridesmaid Dresses,” abstract (PhD diss., University of Studupest, 2001), SpaceQuest (ABC 30910).

More Information

For more information about how to cite books, see section 14.100ff. of the Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.).

Periodicals

Introduction

On this page we review the rules for citing articles found in periodicals (academic journals). These guidelines follow the Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.). The examples provided illustrate the rules for both footnotes and final citations (in your bibliography).

Scholarly Article

Here’s the basic format for citing a scholarly article in your bibliography:

When you cite the same source in a footnote, it will look a little different:

1. Bill Lastman, “The Rhetoric of Municipal Council Meetings,” Journal of Civic Oratory 55, no. 3 (May 2017): 7.

In this case the name is not inverted, a specific page reference is provided, and some periods are replaced by commas.

Here are some further details to observe:

  • Important words in titles are capitalized (headline style)
  • Titles and subtitles are separated with a colon
  • If the periodical lacks volume numbers, simply place the issue number after the periodical title, separated by a comma (e.g., Journal of Craniology, no. 4)
  • Periodical titles are not usually abbreviated, unless the periodical is known primarily by its abbreviation (e.g., PMLA) or a publisher prefers shortened titles.
  • The definite article (The) can usually be omitted from periodical titles, unless the publication is not in English (e.g., Das Argument)
  • While you only have to provide the year of publication, you may add the month, exact day, or season (more examples below)

Variants

Online Article

If you accessed the article online, you can provide some extra information. Where possible, add a DOI number or URL:

1. Mia Opie, “How Turning a Blind Eye Can Make You a Better Listener,” Blind Optometrist 3, no. 1 (Summer 2016): 24-47, https://doi.org/10.4321/bli.23nk34.

2. Bernard Flunk, “Flight on the Dromedary: Zenobia and the Siege of Palmyra,” Ancient Near Eastern Studies 32, no. 1 (September 2007): 66-121, https://www.journalpod.org/stable/571039.

Opie, Mia. “How Turning a Blind Eye Can Make You a Better Listener.” Blind Optometrist 3, no. 1 (Summer 2016): 24-47. https://doi.org/10.4321/bli.23nk34.

Flunk, Bernard. “Flight on the Dromedary: Zenobia and the Siege of Palmyra.” Ancient Near Eastern Studies 32, no. 1 (September 2007): 66-121. https://www.journalpod.org/stable/571039.

If there is no DOI, and the URL may not work for most readers, you may instead provide the title of the database through which you accessed the source:

1. Nick Bunting, “The History of Christmas Tree Ornaments in Select Pockets of Eastern Michigan,” Adventus 209, no. 3 (January 2001): 1-16, JSTOR.

Bunting, Nick. “The History of Christmas Tree Ornaments in Select Pockets of Eastern Michigan.” Adventus 209, no. 3 (January 2001): 1-16. JSTOR.

To check if a URL works for the average reader, log out of your library database and try use the link. If the URL directs you to at least a citation or preview of the text (even if not full access), you can use it. In other words, in most cases you do not have to substitute the database title.

Forthcoming Article

If an article has not been published yet (but you somehow have access to it), you can cite is as follows:

1. Rosemary Menhir, “Was Stonehenge an Alien Landing Strip?” Studies in Anachronism 12 (forthcoming).

Menhir, Rosemary. “Was Stonehenge an Alien Landing Strip?” Studies in Anachronism 12 (forthcoming).

If the article is to be published electronically, and you have early access, provide the date that accompanies this version:

1. Elmira Starch, “The Pudding is in the Proof: The Challenges of Preserving Culinary Legal Evidence,” Lawyer’s Digest 47, no. 1, published ahead of print, June 5, 2017, https://doi.org/10.4545/577743.

Starch, Elmira. “The Pudding is in the Proof: The Challenges of Preserving Culinary Legal Evidence.” Lawyer’s Digest 47, no. 1. Published ahead of print, June 5, 2017. https://doi.org/10.4545/577743.

If in the meantime the official publication comes out, cite that instead.

No Continuous Pagination

Some online periodicals don’t have continuous pagination. Each article is numbered starting with page 1. In such cases, a unique ID might be provided that can replace the page range:

1. Benjamin Falsetto, “The Eunuch’s Guide to the Orchestra,” Philsharmonica 3, no. 2 (July 2016): agjf8e88m, https://doi.org/10.1515/1633939vv4.

Falsetto, Benjamin. “The Eunuch’s Guide to the Orchestra.” Philsharmonica 3, no. 2 (July 2016): agjf8e88m, https://doi.org/10.1515/1633939vv4.

Access Date

The Chicago Manual of Style does not require an access date for citations of electronic sources. However, if you are asked to provide one, you can insert it before the URL:

1. Johannes Naaktgeboren, “The Dutch Connection to the Paradise Papers,” Studies in Tax Evasion 45, no. 2 (December 2017): 59-72, accessed December 19, 2017, https://doi.org/10.9843/150948902.

Naaktgeboren, Johannes. “The Dutch Connection to the Paradise Papers.” Studies in Tax Evasion 45, no. 2 (December 2017): 59-72. Accessed December 19, 2017. https://doi.org/10.9843/150948902.

Special Issue

Sometimes you may come across an entire periodical issue dedicated to a single theme or topic. Here’s how you can cite both an individual article and the entire issue:

1. Jean Lacroix, “Some Unusual North Sea Catches,” in “The Elusive Red Herring,” ed. Fred Shipley and Bob Seaworth, special issue, Journal of Fisheries and Oceans 42, no. 3 (Summer 2015): 15.

Lacroix, Jean. “Some Unusual North Sea Catches.” In “The Elusive Red Herring,” edited by Fred Shipley and Bob Seaworth. Special issue, Journal of Fisheries and Oceans 42, no. 3 (Summer 2015): 1-29.

Shipley, Fred, and Bob Seaworth, eds. “The Elusive Red Herring.” Special issue, Journal of Fisheries and Oceans 42, no. 3 (Summer 2015).

As usual, you can add a URL or DOI for electronic sources (see above).

Magazine

When you cite an article published in a magazine, there are a few differences to note. Most importantly, the date of publication is not placed in parentheses:

1. William Gray, “More Drivers are Changing Their Gender to Save on Insurance Costs,” Underwriter, October 15, 2018, 23.

Gray, William. “More Drivers are Changing Their Gender to Save on Insurance Costs.” Underwriter, October 15, 2018.

Any articles (athe) that precede magazine titles are omitted. Similarly, in a bibliographic entry the page range can be left out.

Review

When citing a review, include the author of the review, provide the title of both the review (if there is one) and the work under review, and indicate where the review can be found:

1. Julia Hoeness, “The Texture of Masculine Language,” review of Masculinity and the Language of Nonrepresentability, by Bradley Klothes, Studies in Masculine Failings 4, no. 2 (May 2008): 5.

Hoeness, Julia. “The Texture of Masculine Language.” Review of Masculinity and the Language of Nonrepresentability, by Bradley Klothes. Studies in Masculine Failings 4, no. 2 (May 2008): 5-7.

Besides the author, you can also list other contributors. For example, for a review of a performance you might cite specific performers as well as the location (e.g., written by Jane Air, performed by Emma Rock, Old Chatterbox Theatre). Such information can be placed right after the title of the work reviewed.

Abstract

In some cases you may want to cite just the abstract:

1. Erroneous Mertpickle, “Oecolampadius on Just War Theory,” abstract, Belligerent Quarterly 288, no. 4 (June 2015): 145, https://doi.org/10.9889/1305701.

Mertpickle, Erroneous. “Oecolampadius on Just War Theory.” Abstract. Belligerent Quarterly 288, no. 4 (June 2015): 145-54. https://doi.org/10.9889/1305701.

More Information

For more information about citing periodicals, see especially pages 828-37 of The Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.).

Online Sources

Introduction

Increasingly, much research is done online. Here we review how to cite some common electronic sources using the guidelines set out by the Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.).

Whereas a book or periodical typically provides the publication information in the opening pages, it may be more difficult to locate information about online sources. You may have to do some digging around:

Perhaps the most important rule to remember is that when you cite an entire website you should use roman font (so not italics) for the title. By contrast, the title of a specific webpage is placed between quotation marks.

Electronic Sources

Entire Website

When citing a website, you should include the title (in roman font), along with a URL. (For more information about citing URLs, check out our separate page).

You may also add a date (along with a description such as last modified onupdated on, or accessed on). Do note, however, that the Chicago Manuel of Style does not recommend the use of access dates unless as a means of last resort (when you have no other way to date the source).

Finally, if you feel that readers may not immediately recognize your source as a website, then just add the tag (website) after the title:

1. Chocolate Fondue Society, accessed April 4, 2018, https://chocfondsoc.org/.

2. Snowflake University (website), updated October 22, 2018. https://snowflakeuniversity.com.

Chocolate Fondue Society. Accessed April 4, 2018. https://chocfondsoc.org/.

Snowflake University (website). Updated October 22, 2018. https://snowflakeuniversity.com.

Note that you don’t have to include websites in your final bibliography: citing them in your footnotes is generally sufficient.

Page of a Website

When citing a specific webpage, follow the same rules as for websites but add the title of the page as well as the author’s name (if there is one).

1. “The Source of Katherine Hepburn’s Eye Infection: The Dirty Secret of Venice’s Famous Canals,” Silver Screen Stories, last modified June 9, 2017, https://www.ssstories.com/

2. Nicky Flamel, “The Mercurial Alchemist,” Alchemy 101, accessed January 2, 2018, https://alchemy101.org/.

“The Source of Katherine Hepburn’s Eye Infection: The Dirty Secret of Venice’s Famous Canals.” Silver Screen Stories. Last modified June 9, 2017. https://www.ssstories.com/

Flamel, Nicky. “The Mercurial Alchemist.” Alchemy 101. Accessed January 2, 2018. https://alchemy101.org/.

Online Article

If you’ve accessed an academic article online (let’s say through a database), it’s a good idea to provide a URL or DOI:

1. Arno Flush, “The Vespasian Legacy: A Brief History of the Public Toilet,” Roman Architecture Quarterly 5, no. 1 (Summer 2018): 1-14, https://doi.org/10.4221/pi35.2sch/.

Flush, Arno. “The Vespasian Legacy: A Brief History of the Public Toilet.” Roman Architecture Quarterly 5, no. 1 (Summer 2018): 1-14. https://doi.org/10.4221/pi35.2sch/.

For more information, please consult our page on citing periodicals.

E-Book

When citing an electronic book, try to mention the reading device (e.g., Kindle), the format (e.g., PDF), or the DOI or URL:

1. Hans Emmental, A Tax Code as Porous as Cheese: The Rise of Swiss Banking (Geneva: Gruyere Press, 2001): p. 44, Kindle.

Emmental, Hans. A Tax Code as Porous as Cheese: The Rise of Swiss Banking. Geneva: Gruyere Press, 2001. Kindle.

For more information, please visit our page on citing books.

Blog

For specific blog posts, follow this format:

1. Ed Hooiberg, “From Istanbul to Constantinople: The Joy of Long Distance Motor Cycle Trips,” Delightful Turkish Historian (blog), March 23, 2018, https://delightfulturkishhistorian.wordpress.com/.

Hooiberg, Ed “From Istanbul to Constantinople: The Joy of Long Distance Motor Cycle Trips.” Turkish Delightful Historian (blog). March 23, 2018. https://turkishdelightfulhistorian.wordpress.com/.

Note that adding blog in parentheses is optional.

Sometimes blogs are associated with larger organizations or publications. In such cases you may need to give a bit more information:

 1. Herman Casing, “Double or Triple Pain? The Perils of Window Installation,” Making it in the Trades (blog), Chronicle of Applied Education, March 11, 2016, https://www.apchronicle.com/blogs/making-it/double-or-triple/.

Casing, Herman. “Double or Triple Pain? The Perils of Window Installation.” Making it in the Trades (blog). Chronicle of Applied Education, March 11, 2016. https://www.apchronicle.com/blogs/making-it/double-or-triple/.

To cite an entire blog, list the creator as editor or author and then follow the same format as with a website.

Comment

Comments on blogs and websites usually don’t need to be cited in your final bibliography. In fact, you can get away with just citing them in the text of your essay:

Most readers sneered at Casing’s suggestion that window installers wear gloves. In the words of John Simmons, “Gloves are for pansies” (comment on Casing, February 2, 2017).

Obviously you’ll want to provide a fuller entry for the original blog or webpage.

If you do want to reference a comment in a footnote, you have two options. If you’ve already cited the original post, then you can significantly shorten the footnote for the comment:

1. John Simmons, February 2, 2017, comment on Casing, “Double or Triple Pain?”

On the other hand, if you’re citing just the comment, you’ll want to provide some additional information. Here are two examples, with the first being the most detailed:

1. John Simmons, February 2, 2017, comment on Herman Casing, “Double or Triple Pain? The Perils of Window Installation,” Making it in the Trades (blog), Chronicle of Applied Education, March 11, 2016, https://www.apchronicle.com/blogs/making-it/double-or-triple/#comment-302598710.

2. Bigfoot, April 4, 2018, reply to John Simmons, https://www.apchronicle.com/blogs/making-it/double-or-triple/#comment-30253568.

If the commenter’s name is a pseudonym (e.g., Bigfoot), and you know the person’s real name, you can add it in square brackets:

2. Bigfoot [June Everett]

Video on a Website

You can provide plenty of information about an online video, but we will limit ourselves to a fairly simple example:

1. Esther Taillash, Interview with a Scandinavian Merman, uploaded by SaltyMermaidProductions, Jan. 2, 2018, video, 2:03, https://youtu.be/bri2n_y83.

Taillash, Esther. Interview with a Scandinavian Merman. Uploaded by SaltyMermaidProductions, Jan. 2, 2018. Video, 2:03. https://youtu.be/bri2n_y83.

In this example we’ve clarified both the format (video) and the duration (2:03 min.).

Podcast

Here’s how you might cite a podcast:

1. Brian Peel, “The Ecuadorian Banana Boom,” in Planet Yellow, produced by John Slipshot, January 24, 2007, podcast, MP3 audio, 13:45, https://www.apple.com/ca/itunes/podcasts/planet-yellow/.

Peel, Brian. “The Ecuadorian Banana Boom.” In Planet Yellow. Produced by John Slipshot. January 24, 2007. Podcast, MP3 audio, 13:45. https://www.apple.com/ca/itunes/podcasts/planet-yellow/.

If the producer is the same as the author, you don’t have to mention the latter’s name twice. Also, if you listened to the podcast online (rather than as a download), the file format is optional.

App

When citing an app, it’s customary to include the version number and the operating system it can run on:

1. Fighting Clowns, v. 2.3 (Violent Media, 2018), Android 7.0 or later, soundtrack by John Smuckers.

Fighting Clowns. V. 2.3. Violent Media, 2018. Android 7.0 or later. Soundtrack by John Smuckers.

Social Media

Social media posts (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) can often be cited just in the text of your essay:

Brian Roundtree recently questioned whether the term Open Access can include paid content: “Does the ‘Open’ in ‘Open Access’ Still Mean ‘Free’?” (@BrianRoundtree, September 22, 2018).

If you do want to cite social media in a footnote or bibliography, here’s one way:

1. Brian Roundtree (@BrianRoundtree), “Does the ‘Open’ in ‘Open Access’ Still Mean ‘Free’?” Twitter, September 22, 2018, 2:22 p.m., https://twitter.com/BrianRoundtree/status/838839.

Roundtree, Brian (@BrianRoundtree). “Does the ‘Open’ in ‘Open Access’ Still Mean ‘Free’?” Twitter, September 22, 2018, 2:22 p.m. https://twitter.com/BrianRoundtree/status/838839.

For the title of a social media post, use the actual text (the first 160 characters). To describe the post, list the social media platform (e.g., Twitter, Facebook, Instagram). You may also clarify the format (e.g., Instagram photo).

Social Media Comment

As with comments on blogs and webpages, social media comments don’t require detailed citation. You can provide just a minimal citation in the text of your essay:

In response to John Bigot’s Facebook rant, Emily Newman replied, “I would unfriend you, but then I wouldn’t have the satisfaction of seeing you mocked by all your friends” (comment on Bigot, September 4, 2018).

You may instead want to provide a more detailed footnote. If you’ve cited the original social media post already, keep your citation short:

1. Emily Newman, “I would unfriend you, but then I wouldn’t have the satisfaction of seeing you mocked by all your friends,” September 4, 2018, comment on Bigot, “I hate it when,” https://www.facebook.com/johnbigot/posts/52309585?comment_id=262099.

For the title of the comment, use the actual text of the comment (up to 160 characters). In the rare instance when you have not cited the original post, you can flesh out some of the details of your citation.

Newspapers

Introduction

Let’s review how to cite newspapers using the Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.).

Although newspapers are usually cited only in a footnote, we have also provided examples of bibliographic entries. In addition to the specific examples below, do check out the section on newspaper titles for some of the more finicky rules.

Newspapers

Newspaper Article

The standard citation format for newspaper articles includes the author’s name, article title, newspaper, and date:

1. Robert Saddleback, “Ponying Up: The Rising Costs of Miniature Horses,” Silver Saloon Tribune, August 5, 2017.

Saddleback, Robert. “Ponying Up: The Rising Costs of Miniature Horses.” Silver Saloon Tribune, August 5, 2017.

Online Article

If you’re citing an online article, add a URL (or a database title if that’s all you can find):

1. Johnny Crestwood, “All LA Traffic Lights Now Give Priority to High Income Earners,” Malibu Sentinel, Jan. 25, 2019, https://www.malibusentinel.com/lalaland/traffic-lights/.

Crestwood, Johnny. “All LA Traffic Lights Now Give Priority to High Income Earners.” Malibu Sentinel, Jan. 25, 2019. https://www.malibusentinel.com/lalaland/traffic-lights/.

Editorial

If an editorial doesn’t have a title, cite it as follows:

1. Sarah Flimshank, editorial, Claptown Gazette, June 14, 2011.

Flimshank, Sarah. Editorial. Claptown Gazette, June 14, 2011.

If it does have a title, you can still add the word “editorial” for clarification:

1. Esther Smallwood, “We Endorse Oprah for President,” editorial, Statesman Times, March 15, 2019.

Smallwood, Esther. “We Endorse Oprah for President.” Editorial. Statesman Times, March 15, 2019.

In the same way, if an article is part of a regular column or series, you can add the name of the column/series (in roman font) after the article title.

Letter or Comment

Contributions from readers can be cited as follows:

1. W. Rabbit, Letter to the editor, McGregor’s Garden Variety News, April 5, 2017.

Rabbit, W. Letter to the editor. McGregor’s Garden Variety News, April 5, 2017.

For letters that have an actual title, check out the rules for editorials (above).

If you wish to cite a comment, just follow and adapt the format for online comments.

Article with no Author

For anonymous articles (and editorials, letters, etc.), start your footnote with a title and your bibliographic entry with the newspaper:

1. “Large Woolly Mammoth Starts Zoo Knitting Class.” Timbuktu Times, May 23, 2016.

Timbuktu Times. “Large Woolly Mammoth Starts Zoo Knitting Class.” May 23, 2016.

Newspaper Titles

When you cite the name of a newspaper, here are some rules to keep in mind:

  • Omit The from the title (e.g., not The Fullofit Daily, but Fullofit Daily). You can retain the article in non-English titles.
  • For local newspapers that are less well known, you can add the city in brackets. E.g., Plain Liar (Buffalo).
  • You can also add a state or province for clarification (abbreviated or not). E.g., Current Events (Aurelia, IL).
  • Sometimes you may want to clarify which country’s edition you’re citing. E.g., Guardian (US edition)
  • In some cases you may need to cite a news service rather than a newspaper. If so, don’t italicize the name (e.g., Associated Press).

 

More Information

For more information about citing newspapers, check out especially sections 14.191-14.200 of the Chicago Manuel of Style (17th edition).

Audio Visual Sources

Introduction

When you cite audio-visual sources using the Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.), there are a number of common elements:

  1. The name of the content creator (composer, conductor, performer, etc.)
  2. The title of the work (in quotation marks or italics)
  3. Information about contributors, recording and performance details, etc.
  4. The publisher and date of publication
  5. The format (e.g., DVD)
  6. Additional information.

The Chicago Manual of Style allows for a lot of freedom in how you order these elements. In fact, the examples in the official guide demonstrate a surprising amount of variation in how entries are put together. So don’t overthink your citations: try to be as detailed as possible, but know that there is no one way to cite each type of source.

Videos

The essential elements for citing videos include the director, title, format, and publication information. Beyond that you can include other details as you see fit. In first example we’ve added the original release date. In the second example we’ve included the title of a specific scene:

1. Ender Pot, The History of Fizzbin (2006; Montreal: Shatner Productions, 2008), DVD.

2. “An Unexpected Find,” Searching for Unicorns in Southern Mongolia, directed by Elmer Watkins, narrated by Cindy Crewneck (Toronto: Imaginary Castles Society, 1990), Videocassette (VHS).

Pot, Ender, dir. The History of Fizzbin. 2006; Montreal: Shatner Productions, 2008. DVD.

Watkins, Elmer, dir. Searching for Unicorns in Southern Mongolia. Narrated by Cindy Crewneck. Toronto: Imaginary Castles Society, 1990. Videocassette (VHS).

If the format is Blu-ray, write “Blu-ray Disc” (both words capitalized). You can include additional contributors (e.g., writers and actors) as well as any other relevant information.

TV Series

Here’s how you might cite an episode from a TV series:

1. The Arsonist, season 2, episode 5, “The Slow Burn,” directed by Mateo Inflagrante, written by Emerson Jones, featuring Emma Stove, Thomas Tallis, and Peter C. Microphone, aired September 3, 2018, on XYZ. https://www.netflix.com/the-arsonist.

Inflagrante, Mateo, dir. The Arsonist. Season 2, episode 5. “The Slow Burn.” Written by Emerson Jones, featuring Emma Stove, Thomas Tallis, and Peter C. Microphone. Aired September 3, 2018, on ABC. https://www.netflix.com/the-arsonist.

If the TV series cannot be watched online, you can leave out the URL or provide a link to a page where the TV series can be purchased.

Podcast

See our separate entry under online sources.

Music Recording

Because recordings of music vary widely, the following examples are meant as suggestions only. You should feel free to add, remove, or combine elements in order to provide a detailed citation.

In particular, you will often have to choose which author or contributor you want to cite first (e.g., composer, performer, conductor). The other contributors can then be listed after the title. Make sure you add a description of each role as appropriate.

The date is flexible too. You can cite the copyright date, the publication date, and/or the date of the recording.

Finally, for LPs and CDs, see if you can find the catalogue or acquisition number, and list it right after the publisher.

Entire Record

Here are a couple of examples of how you might cite an entire LP or record:

1. Johan Hippelhammock, violinist, Austrian Folk Dances, with the Waltzburg Orchestra, conducted by Simone Prattle, recorded January 19, 2011, Strudel Records SR 743, 2013, 2 compact discs.

2. Johann Sebastian Bach, Two Violin Concertos for the Three Fingered Violinist, performed by Axel Yoyo, with the Sweetness and Light Orchestra, conducted by William Nimble, Capital CDP 18766, 1967, 33 ⅓ rpm.

Hippelhammock, Johan, violinist. Austrian Folk Dances. Waltzburg Orchestra, Simone Prattle. Recorded January 19, 2011. Strudel Records SR 743, 2013, 2 compact discs.

Bach, Johann Sebastian. Two Violin Concertos for the Three Fingered Violinist. Performed by Axel Yoyo. Sweetness and Light Orchestra, William Nimble. Capital CDP 18766, 1967, 33 ⅓ rpm.

Note that in the second example “33 ⅓ rpm” refers to the playing speed of the LP. Adding the LP designation would be necessary only if the recording consists of multiple LPs (e.g., 33 ⅓ rpm, 3 LPs).

Single Track

You can also cite a single track. In such cases, your final bibliography may simply list the entire CD or LP (as in the final example)

1. Fred Whitesock, performer, “Sandal Tap Dance No. 5,” track 3 on Fabric or Friction, Over the Top Records OTT 387, 2018, compact disc.

2. Bob Jammer, vocalist, “Leaving You,” by Gregory Samsanov and Hilda Smith, recorded February 2004, track 5 on The Divorce Proceedings, Cumbria Records, 2004, compact disc.

Whitesock, Fred, performer. “Sandal Tap Dance No. 5.” Track 3 on Fabric or Friction. Over the Top Records OTT 387, 2018, compact disc.

Bob Jammer, The Divorce Proceedings. Recorded February 2004. Cumbria Records CR 763, 2004, compact disc.

Electronic Music File

Much of our music these days is found online. To cite an electronic music file that you’ve streamed or downloaded, make sure you specify the file format (e.g., MP3 audio) or streaming platform (e.g., Spotify):

1. Katy Sweet, “Bubblegum Girl,” MP3 audio, track 9 on Summer Drives, Cutie Patootie Media, 2017.

Sweet, Katy. “Bubblegum Girl.” Track 9 on Summer Drives. Cutie Patootie Media, 2017, MP3 audio.

As you can see, the order of the information is flexible. In some cases, you may also want to add a URL at the end.

Presentation

Here’s how you might cite a professional presentation at a conference:

1. Madge Nelson, “Gru’s Parenting Strategies” (Presentation, Third Annual Minion Lore Conference, University of Paperwork, Smalltown, CA, February 22, 2017).

Nelson, Madge. “Gru’s Parenting Strategies.” Paper presented at the Third Annual Minion Lore Conference, University of Villainy, Felony City, CA, February 22, 2017.

For other types of presentations, change the description as appropriate (e.g., poster presented at …).

Performance

Performances are normally cited only in the notes, and not in the bibliography. Add as much information as you think relevant:

1. The Lost Umbrella, dir. Roger Sneak, written by Michel Petit, Grand Théâtre, Cherbourg, France, July 5, 2015.

Other Audio-visual Files

Any other audio-visual files should be cited following the same patterns illustrated above. Provide additional description as appropriate.

In this final example we’ve cited an audio book:

1. Ian Thorpe, Classic Tennis Sounds: The Sharapova Years, read by Esther Ball and Rafael Swipe (Amsterdam: Courtside Audio, 2015), audio book, 24 hr., 59 min.

Thorpe, Ian. Classic Tennis Sounds: The Sharapova Years. Read by Esther Ball and Rafael Swipe. Amsterdam: Courtside Audio, 2015. Audio book, 24 hr., 59 min.

Conclusion

For more information about citing audio-visual sources, please check out sections 14.261-14.266 of the Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.).

Manuscript Collections

Introduction

If you’re doing archival research, citing sources can be a bit tricky. There is great variation between documents, which is why the Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.) allows some leeway in how you cite your sources.

Common elements include a description of the document or collection, as well as some indication of where the source can be located (often a library).

In footnotes the specific item (letter, report, etc.) is usually cited first. In the bibliography your entry can start with any number of things (the collection, the author, etc.).

Note that libraries often provide their own instructions for how to cite their holdings. For expert guidance, check out the resources section below.

General Guidelines

Here are a few tips for citing archival sources:

  • Use quotation marks only for specific titles. Generic descriptions (e.g., Letter, Memorandum) don’t need quotation marks.
  • If the generic description of the source is not actually found in the manuscript, you don’t always have to capitalize it.
  • You can use the abbreviations MS and MSS for manuscript and manuscripts (though the first usage is typically written out).
  • In your footnotes you can often omit the word letter (e.g., 2. Colonel Tom to NASA)

Examples

Here are some examples of how you might cite an item in a collection:

1. Prince Albert to Queen Victoria, 17 June 1859, Victoria Papers, Royal Pane Archives, London.

2. Ian Tipperary, memorandum, “How to Stop Canadians from Burning Down the White House,” 6 December, 1813, Dolley Madison Papers, MS 322, Princeton University Library.

Victoria Papers. Royal Pane Archives, London.

Tipperary, Ian. Correspondence. Dolley Madison Papers. Princeton University Library.

Note that these are but a couple of variations, and you will have to be flexible in adapting them to your own needs.

Resources

Often libraries provide their own citation guidelines. Examples include the National Archives of the United States and Library Archives Canada. For more information, see also sections 14.221-14.231 of the Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.).

Interviews and Messages

Introduction

According to the Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.), interviews and personal messages may be cited in the footnotes alone, though in some cases you can add an entry to your bibliography as well.

Unpublished interviews

Interviews rarely have a title, and the main focus is on identifying the interviewer and interviewee (listed first). If the interview has been published or is available in a collection of some sort, you can provide some additional information.

For unpublished interviews, cite as much information as is available:

1. Bertrand de Born (CEO, Schismatix Group), interview by Dante Lighthead, March 2, 2017.

2. Amish Killjoy, in discussion with the author, September 15, 2002.

de Born, Bertrand (CEO, Schismatix Group). Interviewed by Dante Lighthead. March 2, 2017.

Killjoy, Amish. Discussion with the author. September 15, 2002.

Published interviews

Let’s look at a couple of examples of how published interviews might be cited. First, here’s an interview shared on a blog:

1. Kim Jong-un, interview by Dennis Rodman, Embrace the Worm (blog), January 8, 2018, https://www.embracetheworm.wordpress.com/

Jong-un, Kim. Interviewed by Dennis Rodman. Embrace the Worm (blog). January 8, 2018. https://www.embracetheworm.wordpress.com/

Next, here’s an interview published as a journal article:

1. Michael Rode, “What’s New in the Recording Industry: Interview with Michael Rode,” by Jim Shure, The Right Focus 2, no. 5 (2017): 99-104.

Rode, Michael. “What’s New in the Recording Industry: Interview with Michael Rode.” By Jim Shure. The Right Focus 2, no. 5 (2017): 99-104.

In this case the title already indicates that this is an interview, so we’ve written “by Jim Shure” rather than “interview(ed) by Jim Shure.”

If your source has been published in a different format, don’t panic. Just adjust the format to meet your needs.

Messages

Personal messages don’t need to be cited in your bibliography. Most often you can just provide a name (where possible), a description (message, conversation, etc.), and a date:

1. Jane Birk, email message to the author, August 2, 2015.

More Information

For more information about how to cite interviews and messages, see sections 14.211-14.214 of the Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.).

Hanging Indentation

Introduction

A number of citation styles require the use of hanging indentation for citing sources at the end of a research paper or book. Here’s the quick explanation of how to add hanging indentation in MS Word.

What It Looks Like

Hanging indentation means that for every entry in your final bibliography, you indent each line after the first one tab space. Here’s an example of an MLA Works Cited Page with hanging indentation:

Now, you can of course just press Tab for every entry, but that’s laborious and MS Word will likely mess up your spacing if you go that route. There’s a much quicker way to achieve hanging indentation …

How To Add Hanging Indentation

Adding hanging indentation in MS Word is super easy. Just highlight your text and press Ctrl + T. That’s it!

Alternatively, you can take a more circuitous route and go to Home > Paragraph (click the little symbol to the right) > Special > Hanging Indentation.

If you take the latter route, you will be able to adjust the spacing options at the same time. For more details, check out the video above.